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Dr. Chapa’s Clinical Pearls.

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Relevant, evidence based, and practical information for medical students, residents, and practicing healthcare providers regarding all things women’s healthcare! This podcast is intended to be clinically relevant, engaging, and FUN, because medical education should NOT be boring! Welcome...to Clinical Pearls.


United States


Anchor FM


Relevant, evidence based, and practical information for medical students, residents, and practicing healthcare providers regarding all things women’s healthcare! This podcast is intended to be clinically relevant, engaging, and FUN, because medical education should NOT be boring! Welcome...to Clinical Pearls.




AC < 10% with Normal EFW: Risks?

Traditionally, fetal growth restriction (FGR) was diagnosed when the Hadlock EFW was < 10th percentile. However, in 2020, SMFM updated its publish guidelines endorsing the use of an isolated abdominal circumference (AC) under the 10th percentile as an additional diagnostic criterion. Is the isolated small AC linked to adverse perinatal outcomes? And what are the delivery recommendations for an isolated small AC? It’s a complicated issue with complicated data. In this episode we will provide...


Birthing Ball: Toy or Labor Tool?

Our current discipline of obstetrics owes a lot to the practice of Midwifery. In a previous episode, we covered “lessons learned from Midwifery” and that is available on our podcast archive. In this episode, we will discuss the data regarding a practice originally propagated by Midwifery: the Birthing Ball. What is the origin of this, and how did it make its way into obstetrical practice? Is there data for it’s use? Does it really help reduce labor pain? In this episode we will summarize the...


For Gerri (CNM)! Quick response regarding a common gyn problem!

Gerri, thank you for your voice message today! Welcome to our podcast family. Here’s some helpful notes for you. 😊😊


Back to Amnioinfusion for Mec? New Metaanalysis Data (03/2023)

In Oct 2006, the ACOG released Opinion Number 346. This stated that “Based on current literature, routine prophylactic amnioinfusion for the dilution of amnioinfusion for meconium-stained amniotic fluid should be done only in the setting of additional clinical trials”. Back then, some experts criticized the decision to abandon amnioinfusion for meconium based on the limitations of the 2005 study which helped to motivate the ACOG decision. And now, a new systematic review and meta-analysis...


Unexplained Infertility: New LIFE-CHANGING Genetic Data.

Infertility. It’s real. It affects 10-15% of couples in the US. After a thorough investigation, 30% of couples will be left without an identifiable cause for their infertility. This has been termed unexplained infertility. While traditionally this may have been considered a reassuring result, new data is raising the yellow flag of caution in these patients. Research has now established the link between infertility and some potential future negative health outcomes. As “next generation“...


OB Anti-Thyroid Antibody Tests: 👍or👎

Such a small gland… Yet so much confusion, and controversy: the THYROID gland in pregnancy. Let’s start with this foundational question: should we universally screen for thyroid abnormalities in pregnancy? And as a follow-up question, should we be checking for anti-thyroid antibodies? The answer to both of those queries depends on who you ask! In this episode, we will solve the conundrum of whether we should be screening for anti-thyroid antibodies pre-pregnancy and/or during pregnancy...



The traditional explanation and assumed pathophysiology of HELLP syndrome stated that it was a late manifestation/further progress of preeclampsia with severe features. But can HELLP present clinically without hypertension? What about without proteinuria? If a patient has lab criteria of HELLP alone, without hypertension, does she still require magnesium sulfate? In this episode, we will summarize data from 3 sources (ACOG practice bulletin on thrombocytopenia, ACOG practice bulletin on...


Fezolinetant: A Revolutionary Medication.

The pathophysiology of menopausal hot flashes has remained largely a mystery until about a decade ago when KNDy neurons were found to be the key triggers of the hot flash. Since then, research and development has been going fullsteam to develop a non-hormonal, receptor-based therapy for the common hot flash. In April 2023 in the journal, Obstetrics and Gynecology (the Green Journal), new safety data will be published on the revolutionary new medication, Fezolinetant. With Phase 3 study...


Nonreactive NST: Give OJ?

The fetal NST is a hallmark of antepartum fetal surveillance and a key component of the BioPhysical Profile (BPP). Historically, and still done today, one of the low-risk interventions for rectifying a non-reactive NST has been the maternal administration of glucose/PO challenge. Is this evidence-based? Does maternal hypoglycemia contribute to a nonreactive NST? In this episode, we will review the data spanning a 40-year interval that has sought to answer this question. And what about fetal...


Do Rescue ACSs Affect Neurodevelopment? New March 2023 Data.

The Liggins and Howie trial demonstrating the benefit of antenatal corticosteroids (ACSs) on fetal lungs was published in 1972 in the journal Pediatrics. First adopted as weekly injections, ACSs were then found to be associated with decreased birth weights and decreased head circumferences. Hence, weekly administration was abandoned in the late 1990s. But the ACOG/SMFM does still recognize a single repeat dose “based on clinical scenario”, called a rescue dose. Is a rescue dose of steroids...


UPDATE: Israel, “French CSs”, & Patient Groups.

This is a brief update regarding our recent podcast on “the French C-section”. Having an Israeli member of our podcast family…is priceless! ❤️Listen to the latest development regarding the extraperitoneal C-section in Israel and how this situation bears similarities to the US approval of ADDYI in 2015. Thank you Liel N.!! 😊😊


The Scary State of Syphilis

In 1999, the CDC had a national plan of action to “completely eliminate syphilis” by the year 2005. Although rates of syphilis did dramatically decrease to record lows during that time, we are now experiencing record HIGH rates of congenital syphilis. Some states are having a close to 500% increase in congenital cases. How did we get to this point? In this episode, we will review and summarize 3 key recent publications regarding the rise of congenital syphilis (Journal Women’s Health Issues...


BEWARE The French C-Section!

The historic saying is, “there is nothing new under the sun”. So true! Such is the case with the extraperitoneal C-section. First advocated in 1823 by French obstetrician, Louis-Auguste Baudelocque, this complex technique fell to the waste-side with the advent of antibiotic availability. But now, this extra-peritoneal cesarean technique, A.K.A. the "French AmbUlatory Cesarean Section" technique (FAUCS), is trending on social media. Is this safe? Does this have any advantage over a...


Pravastatin For Preeclampsia: New (Feb 2023) Data (AJOG).

The “cure” for preeclampsia is NOT delivery. Preeclampsia is an important signal for future cardiovascular complications once pregnancy is over. While there may not be a true “cure”, we do have options for chemoprophylaxis of preeclampsia. Currently, only low-dose aspirin is ACOG/SMFM endorsed for preeeclampsia prevention. But pravastatin is gaining steam. Pravastatin was previously classified (in the now discontinued FDA label) Category X. However, the FDA recently removed the warning...


The Short Interpregnancy Interval (IPI)

Some obstetrical publications discuss adverse perinatal outcomes based on a short interpregnancy interval (IPI). A separate, yet related topic, is a short interdelivery interval (IDI). Most obstetrical care providers are aware of the adverse obstetrical outcomes following a short IPI. However, short IPI has also been linked to adverse neurodevelopmental disorders in the child. Are repeat fetal growth ultrasounds indicated in a pregnancy following a short IPI? Is antepartum fetal surveillance...


The 34-36 WK PPROM Dilemma

In 2018, the ACOG recommended immediate induction of labor/delivery for patients with PPROM, who had sure gestational dating, and were at 34 weeks and 0 days or more. This was in order to reduce the risk of neonatal sepsis. This changed, however, in 2020 with ACOG Practice Bulletin 217 which discussed expected management for PPROM in the late preterm interval. Nonetheless, as is our tagline for this podcast, “medicine moves fast”. In February 2023, a current commentary was published in BJOG...


Is Proliferative Endometrium in Menopause Benign?

As part of our medical training and education, we often learn diagnoses in isolation. For example, we have learned that Proliferative Endometrium on EMB is a non-pathological finding. That result can be left alone without therapy, correct? But what if that is found in the context of a postmenopausal patient. Is it still considered a nonpathological finding? In this episode, we will summarize the current nomenclature for endometrial pathology and why one classification scheme is favored over...


Marginal Cord Insertion: Benign or Not?

Marginal cord insertions can be found on antenatal ultrasound. What is the data regarding marginal cord insertion and adverse neonatal outcomes? Is there a relationship, or is this a benign finding? Are serial growth ultrasounds recommended? What about antepartum fetal surveillance for isolated marginal cord insertion? In this episode, we will review the latest data on pregnancies with marginal cord insertion. We will end the episode with a summary of the expert opinions regarding best...


Beyond the PHQ9: Dr. Leon-Arango’s Case

This is our impromptu podcast session in-between patients in our OB Clinic. In this episode, Dr. Leon-Arango (Senior Resident) highlights the importance of looking “deeper” into a patient’s persistent complaint of depression despite a negative PHQ9 score, based on her encounter from today. This real example of a physician’s perception of need for intervention likely helped to change the trajectory of this patient’s life. Listen in as we go “beyond the PHQ9”.


Eating Disorders in Adolescents (ABOG MOC Review)

Eating disorders are not a person’s personal choice. Data has confirmed that eating disorders are not choices, but serious biologically influenced illnesses. Did you know that anorexia nervosa has a highest mortality rate of all psychiatric disorders? Were you aware that the term “female athlete triad” has now been replaced by RED-S? Are Birth Control pills protective of bone loss in these patients? this episode, we will review key facts and clinical pearls regarding eating disorders in...