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Dr. Chapa’s Clinical Pearls.

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Relevant, evidence based, and practical information for medical students, residents, and practicing healthcare providers regarding all things women’s healthcare! This podcast is intended to be clinically relevant, engaging, and FUN, because medical education should NOT be boring! Welcome...to Clinical Pearls.


United States


Anchor FM


Relevant, evidence based, and practical information for medical students, residents, and practicing healthcare providers regarding all things women’s healthcare! This podcast is intended to be clinically relevant, engaging, and FUN, because medical education should NOT be boring! Welcome...to Clinical Pearls.




Advanced Paternal Age? YES

The age at which couples have children in the United States continues to increase. While it is well documented and known that maternal age directly impacts fetal and child outcomes, less attention has been given to advanced paternal age (APA). Medical and Genetic commentaries have stated that limited APA principles have been advocated for or disseminated into the medical communities and the general population. There may be considerations for the development and application of a couple-centered strategy counseling on age-related genetic risks. Is APA a real issue? What age defines that? And what has APA been associated with? Listen in and find out!


Beyfortus PASSIVE Immunity info! For Katie!! ❤️❤️❤️

A quick clarification about Beyfortus neonatal protection against RSV. Thank you Katie for bringing this to my attention! What a wonderful podcast community we have. ❤️❤️❤️


“The College” Clinical PA: Maternal RSV Vaccine Guidance

We have been following this developing story on the Maternal RSV vaccine, Abrysvo. In the recent podcast, we stated that we would let you know when the ACOG releases its “Practice Advisory”, which is its clinical guidance update. This is now out! In this episode will provide the summary, high-yield points regarding this vaccine’s use in pregnancy. Can this be co-administered with other vaccines? What did ACOG say about the preterm birth “numerical imbalance” among study trial participants who received this vaccine? And which option provides a stronger and longer lasting immune response in the child: maternal vaccination, or newborn vaccination? Listen in and find out.


LDA in Preg: The SAGA Continues

Low Dose Aspirin has been a routine aspect of preeclampsia prevention since first mentioned by the ACOG’s Hypertension in Pregnancy Task Force report, back in November 2013. Since that time, there has been several revisions of the criteria of who qualifies for low-dose aspirin in pregnancy. Nonetheless, there are calls and expert opinions challenging this “risk factor based” approach, favoring a more universal adoption. Additionally, the DOSE of low-dose aspirin has also come under recent critique. Is 81 mg the correct dose to use? Does aspirin have the potential to reduce preterm birth? In this episode, we will review a soon-to-be released clinical commentary from the AJOG (October 2023) which addresses these matters.


OB Mental Health Meds: “The College” Data Review.

According to the CDC’s press release from September 2022, the leading underlying causes of pregnancy-related death include mental health conditions (including deaths to suicide and overdose/poisoning related to substance use disorder), accounting for 23% of cases. The top 2 perinatal, mental health conditions are anxiety and depression. And, although much more rare with an incidence of 1–2/1,000, postpartum psychosis is a major cause of self-harm an infant harm. In this episode, we will review “The College’s” recent clinical practice guidelines on mental health therapies in the perinatal interval. Do you know which 2 classes of medications are most preferred for treating anxiety/depression in the perinatal period? Are SSRIs a leading cause of PPHN? Is Lithium allowed in pregnancy? And what is “neonatal adaptation syndrome”? We will cover all these questions, and more, in this episode.


ASX Postmenopausal ES Thickness: Bx?

It’s pretty standard of an evaluation… TVUS for postmenopausal bleeding. It’s well accepted that an endometrial thickness of 4 mm (5 mm in some studies) should trigger further endometrial tissue analysis in women with postmenopausal bleeding. But is there a cut-off endometrial thickness at which endometrial tissue should be evaluated in a postmenopausal patient WITHOUT bleeding, where this was found incidentally? There is definitely an evidence-based recommendation, and we will cover that in this episode.(With a special guest host 😊…. “Anything for SELENAs”)


OB SMORGESBOARD: A Cornucopia of Info.

Welcome to our “OB Smorgasburg” episode, where we have a CORNUCOPIA of topics. Well, maybe not a full cornucopia… But a mini-cornucopia. In this episode, we will address 2 recent publications that really are my “pet peeves“ about medical data! One is from the US Preventive Service Task Force, and the other has to do with “timed intercourse”. You have to listen to this! Then we will get into new data regarding the association of 1 abnormal glucose value on the 3 hour GTT with adverse neonatal outcomes. And lastly, is there such a thing as “organic” 50 g glucose challenge? Let’s get into all this information…Now!


Weekly Labs for HDP (OB HTN)?

Universal, weekly (surveillance) laboratory screening for expectant management of Hypertensive Disorders in Pregnancy has been routine practice since the release of the ACOG’s Hypertension in Pregnancy executive summary in November of 2013. This plan of care was also recommended in the ACOG Practice Bulletin 222 focused on Gestational Hypertension and Preeclmapsia. But does this actually help prevent maternal morbidity? Does routine weekly lab surveillance, detect worsening disease over clinical presentation alone? In this episode, we will summarize a new study soon to be released in the Green Journal (Obstetrics & Gynecology) which seeks to determine the clinical utility of this outpatient, antepartum management option.


The “Neglected” STI

Trichomoniasis has been found in every continent and climate without showing any significant seasonal variability. According to the CDC, trichomoniasis is estimated to be the most prevalent nonviral STI worldwide, affecting approximately 2.6 million persons in the United States. Conditions shown to be associated with T vaginalis infection include: Increased risk of HIV acquisition and transmission, increased prevalence of other sexually transmitted infections, adverse outcomes of pregnancy (eg, preterm delivery, preterm prelabor ROM), pelvic inflammatory disease, and infertility. Nonetheless, despite this potential morbidity, T. Vaginalis remains a non-reportable communicable illness. Why is that? In this episode we will summarize the data and look into the CDC's rationale for that decision.


Continue Metformin in PCOS Pregnancies?

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy affecting reproductive-aged women, with a prevalence between 10 to 13%. PCOS has a large component of Insulin Resistance at its core. This is not only a metabolic complication in gynecology, but also has adverse implications for pregnancy. Since metformin is a staple of PCOS care, not only for infertility but also for the metabolic syndrome in adults, a common question is what to do with that medication once conception occurs. Should metformin continue past conception, and if so...should it be stopped at a certain gestational age or continued until delivery. There is data to help with this clinical conundrum. In this episode we will review the data from 2001 up to the most recent ASRM PCOS management guideline for PCOS, which just came out-ahead of print- last month August 2023.



NSAIDs have been shown to be associated with development of VTEs. This data is not new, but is more than 10 years old. Of course, hormonal contraception is also known to potentially increase the risk of VTE depending on the amount of estrogen in the combination product as well as the type of progestin used. So, a reasonable question to ask is whether the use of these two medications TOGETHER synergistically increase the risk of VTE. A recent publication in BMJ (06 Sept 2023) provided some controversial results in this very topic. Could those study results be the result of "indication bias" or protopathic bias? In this episode we will look at the data, summarize the key results, review the study limitations, and provide some real world clinical insights as to what to do with this new info.


Single- or Double-Layer Closure at CS?

Optimal uterine closure remains one of the most studied and controversial aspects of cesarean delivery. Traditionally, a single-layer locking hysterotomy closure has been taught and passes down. Is this evidence based? Is there any advantage to doing a double-layer myometrial closure? We’ll get down to the data in this episode.


CS Ut Closure: Decidua or No Decidua?

A uterine niche is a reservoir-like pouch in the anterior uterine isthmus located at the site of a previous CS scar. First published and describe din 1961, there have been a variety of publications looking at "best practice" at cesarean hysterotomy closure to try to minimize its occurrence. This defect has been linked to abnormal placentation in subsequent pregnancies, CS scar ectopic pregnancies, abnormal uterine bleeding, and dysmenorrhea. While the complete pathogenesis of the niche defect is not completely understood, hysterotomy closure techniques have been implicated in its formation. Should we include the endometrial decidual layer at hysterotomy closure or should we exclude it. Its a debated subject but the data does favor one approach over the other. In this episode, we will examine that data.


SLE in OB: SMFM Info

SLE can affect people of all ages, including children. However, women of childbearing ages—15 to 44 years—are at greatest risk of developing SLE. Women of all ages are affected far more than men (estimates range from 4 to 12 women for every 1 man). Are you familiar with the 2019 updated diagnostic criteria for SLE? What are some specific concerns regarding this condition in pregnancy? Do patients with anti-SSA/SSB antibodies need serial fetal echocardiograms? And do these patients need early induction of labor? We will cover all this information, and more, in this episode (summary of SMFM, Consult Series # 64; 2023)


Celiac Disease and Fertility/Pregnancy

Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder of the small intestine. Celiac disease is the only autoimmune disorder with a single clearly identified environmental trigger...DIET. Although the exact mechanism of the disease development is unknown, celiac disease appears to form after gluten intake from a complex interplay of environmental, immune, and genetic factors. What is Tropical Sprue and how is this different than Tropical Sprue? Does this lead to infertility? How is this linked to a specific dermatologic condition? And what about pregnancy outcomes in Celiac Disease. In this episode, we will cover all this data and more! (For Ana!)


Probiotics for the Vag? Yea or Nay?

Probiotics may be good for your gut, but does your vagina need them too? Probiotics are in everything from fermented drinks to pills and powders, and in many cases, are being advertised as a way of improving your vaginal health. Is that evidence based? Do oral probiotics help support a healthy vaginal microbiome? What about vaginal probiotics? Can vaginal probiotics augment BV therapy? The answer may surprise you. So…Grab your kombucha and take a seat… We’re going to cover this and much more, in this episode. 😊


Cough Medicine as Antidepressant?

We recently provided some additional information regarding the recently approved medication for postpartum depression, Zoranalone. One of the benefits of this medication is it’s rapid mechanism of action. Although not yet approved for major depressive disorder outside of the perinatal interval, there is a separate medication, which was FDA approved last year, which is ultra-fast acting for depression. Oddly enough, one of its main ingredients is a traditional cough suppressant. Have you heard of this medication? In this episode we will review this incredible development AND highlight some cautionary ⚠️ details.


MI Dose? Zuranolone for MDD? “Shoulder Shrug”? Your questions answered.

As a true testament that we read each one of our Podcast Facebook messages, this is a “You asked, We answered” episode regarding 3 main recent topics: 1. dose of oral MI for PCOS, 2. Zoranalone for Major Depressive Disorder, and 3. the “shoulder shrug” maneuver for shoulder dystocia. 👍👍👍👍


Inositol for PCOS? Yes.

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder and one of the most frequent causes of infertility in women. It affects 5–20% of women of childbearing age. The pathogenesis of PCOS is still not fully understood; however, insulin resistance (IR) is known to have a central role in its pathogenesis. According to a cross-sectional study, IR is present in 75% of lean and 95% of overweight women with PCOS. This IR seems to have something else behind it: an imbalance in the ratio of 2 vital inositols! In the treatment of PCOS, metformin is the gold standard metabolic treatment. However, metformin may induce mild to severe gastrointestinal side effects such as nausea, diarrhea, and vomiting. So, an evidence-based and data driven alternative is highly welcome…especially one that could be seen as “natural”. Can inositol, specifically myo—inositol, “reverse” some PCOS metabolic derangements? Can it help normalize cycles? The data may surprise you.


UPDATED Recs: Hep B in Pregnancy (Sept 2023).

In 1990, the ACOG released the “Perinatal Hepatitis B Prevention Program“. OB healthcare workers have doing universal screening for Hepatitis B using HBsAg in each pregnancy, ever since. However, there is a new guidance being released in September 2023 from the ACOG. This new guidance aligns with the national Hep B screening and testing recommendations from the CDC released March 2023. Are you familiar with the “Hep B triple screen”? Is antiviral therapy recommended for Hep B in pregnancy? When should it be used? And is breast-feeding still allowed in mothers with Hep B viral infection? We will cover all of this- and more- in this episode. 🎙️🎙️🎙️